Over the years, many different species in nature have adapted to their habitats by evolving suitable surface functionalities.

Our environment does not cover any longer the energy demand of humankind. Such demand is jeopardized by irresponsible management of resources, waste of energy, and pollution caused by fossil fuels.

Light is a crucial environmental signal and energy source that determines many metabolic, developmental, and behavioral processes in most living organisms.

High-resolution molecular structure determination is a critical step to understanding and engineering biological, organic, and inorganic material systems.

CRISPR loci and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes encode an adaptive immune system that protects many bacterial and almost all archaea against invasive genetic elements from bacteriophages and plasmids.