The notion that strong laser light can intervene and modify the dynamical processes of matter has been demonstrated and exploited both in gas and condensed phases.

The i-motif is four-stranded DNA structure stabilized by hemiprotonated cytosine base pairs (C:C+). Although this is a very attractive structural motif for the development of devices at a nanometric scale, the requirement of acidic pH for its formation makes the i-motif occurrence in vivo controversial.

Statistics from structural genomics initiatives reveal that around 50-55% of the expressed, non-membrane proteins cannot be purified and therefore structurally characterized due to solubility problems

Processes catalyzed by enzymes offer numerous advantages over chemical methods although in many occasions the stability of the biocatalysts becomes a serious concern. 

Living organisms sense and respond to light, a crucial environmental factor, using photoreceptors, which rely on bound chromophores such as retinal, flavins, or linear tetrapyrroles for light sensing.